SPORT INJURIES ACL injury is a condition that cause tear or sprain over the anterior cruciate ligament mostly due to sports injuries. The ACL is a band of dense connective tissue which courses from the femur to the tibia. About 80% of sports-related ACL tears are noncontact injuries, occurring during pivoting manoeuvres or landing from a jump. It is known that ACL injury often results in long-term problems, such as subsequent meniscal injuries, failure of secondary stabilizers, and development of osteoarthritis (OA).

Sign & symptoms :

  • Popping sensation or audible popping sound is felt at the time of injury
  • Patient claim that their knee is “‘giving away”
  • Painful, swelling, tenderness
  • Restricted movement, especially an inability to fully extend the knee
  • Instability during walking

Causes :

Mechanical Knee Problems :

  • Some knee problems result from injury, such as a direct blow or sudden movements that strain
  • Knee beyond its normal range of movement. Other problems, such as osteoarthritis in the knee
  • Result from wear and tear on its parts

Inflammatory Knee Problems :

  • Inflammation that occurs in certain rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic
  • lupus erythematosus, can damage the knee

sport injuries Risk Factors

  • Intrinsic factor - Internal risk factors can be modifiable or non-modifiable. Modifiable factors such as skill level or fitness levels may be addressed through specific training methods. Non-modifiable factors such as sex may be used to create target interventions for athlete populations at an increased risk (think about female athletes with an increased risk for ACL injuries) These internal risk factors may include
    • Age (maturation, aging)
    • Sex
    • Body composition (e.g. body weight, fat mass, BMI, anthropometry)
    • Fitness level (e.g. muscle strength/power, VO2 max, joint ROM)
    • Health (previous injury, joint instability)
    • Anatomy (alignment, intercondylar notch width)
    • Skill level (e.g. sports-specific technique, postural stability)
    • Psychological factors (e.g. competitiveness, motivation, perception of risk)

  • Extrinsic factor - These factors include the external factors that athletes are exposed to and include
    • Human factors (e.g. teammates, opponents)
    • Sports factors (e.g. coaching, rules, referees)
    • Protective equipment (e.g. helmet, mouth guard, shin guards)
    • Sports equipment (e.g. shoes, ski's, racquets)
    • Environmental factors (e.g. weather, snow and ice conditions, floor and turf type, maintenance of playing surface)

sport injuries treatment

  • Pain Management - They may help to decrease pain and oedema to allow an exercise-based rehabilitation programme to proceed. By understanding the physiological basis of these modalities, a safe and appropriate treatment choice can be made, but its effectiveness will ultimately depend upon the patient’s individualized and subjective response to treatment. Massage therapy aims to relieve pain, control swelling, enhance performance and aid recovery.
  • Flexibility and Joint Range of Motion (ROM) - Flexibility training is an important component of rehabilitation in order to minimise the decrease in joint ROM. Also, a variety of stretching techniques can be used in improving range of motion, including PNF, ballistic stretching and static stretching.
  • Strength and Endurance - During rehabilitation after a sports injury it is important to try to maintain cardiovascular endurance. Thus regular bicycling, one-legged bicycling or arm cycling, an exercise programme in a pool using a wet vest or general major muscle exercise programmes with relatively high intensity and short rest periods (circuit weight training) can be of major importance.

  • Proprioception and Coordination - Proprioceptive re-education has to get the muscular receptors working in order to provide a rapid motor response (Scott et al. 2000). Rehabilitation techniques increasingly refer to neuromuscular re-education. Improving coordination depends on repeating the positions and movements associated with different sports and correct training.
  • Functional Rehabilitation - The goal of function-based rehabilitation programmes is the return of the athlete to optimum athletic function. Optimal athletic function is the result of physiological motor activations creating specific biomechanical motions and positions using intact anatomical structures to generate forces and actions.



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