PARKINSON Disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder affecting the dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra within the basal ganglia.

types of PARKINSON :

  • Idiopathic Parkinson's disease
  • Secondary parkinsonism may be caused by certain drugs (e.g., metoclopramide and haloperidol) or by cerebrovascular disease (e.g., multiple lacunar strokes)

Sign & symptoms

  • Rigidity
  • Bradykinesia (decrease in motion)/akinesia (lack of motion)
  • Tremor
  • Postural instability
  • Patient tend to develop a flexion dystonia in which the body is held in a flexion posture because of the inappropriate relationship between flexor and extensor muscle group
  • masked face
  • Sensation is not affected


The commoner type is an ischemic stroke, caused by interruption of blood flow to a certain area of the brain. Ischemic stroke accounts for 85% of all acute strokes. The 15% of acute strokes are hemorrhagic strokes which are caused by bursting of a blood vessel i.e. acute hemorrhage.

  • Diabetes
  • High cholesterol
  • High blood pressure
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Family history of stroke

parkinson risk factors

  • Age - The biggest risk factor for developing Parkinson’s is advancing age. The average age of onset is 60
  • Gender - Men are more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than women
  • Genetic factor - Individuals with a parent or sibling who is affected have approximately two times the chance of developing Parkinson’s

  • Environmental causes - Exposure to farming chemicals, like pesticides and herbicides; Vietnam-era exposure to Agent Orange; and working with heavy metals, detergents and solvents have all been implicated and studied for a clearer link
  • Head trauma - Repeated blows to the head — think boxers, like Muhammad Ali — likely increases one’s risk of developing Parkinson’s

parkinson Treatment

  • Exercise - Is a planned, structured, repetitive activity that is intended to improve physical fitness. There is no “right” exercise for people with Parkinson’s. Any exercise helps, and a variety of exercise types may provide well-rounded benefits.
  • Aerobic exercise - Involves activities that challenge your cardiorespiratory system (heart and lungs) such as walking, biking, running, and activities in the pool. Participating in aerobic exercise at least three days a week for 30-40 minutes may slow Parkinson’s decline.
  • Strength training - Involves using your body weight or other tools to build muscle mass and strength. Strength training two days per week, starting with low repetition and weight, may be beneficial in Parkinson’s disease. A focus on extensor muscles, or muscles in the back of the body, can help with posture.

  • Flexibility training
  • Stretching - Two or more days per week can be beneficial to maintain range of motion and posture. Holding each stretch of major muscle groups for 30 to 60 seconds can improve muscle length.
  • Balance and Agility Training - This type of training often combines aerobic exercise, strength training, and flexibility training Examples include:
    • Dancing
    • Gardening
    • Golfing



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